ILLEGAL SAND MINING
What is Sand mining Used For:
Sand mining is a practice that is used to extract sand, mainly through an open pit. However, sand is also mined from beaches, inland dunes and dredged from ocean beds and river beds. It is often used in manufacturing as an abrasive, for example, and it is used to make concrete.
What is river bed mining?
Sand mining is a practice that is used to extract sand, mainly through an open pit. However, sand is also mined from beaches, inland dunes and dredged from oceanbeds and river beds. ... Sand mining is a direct cause of erosion, and also impacts the local wildlife.
Why sand mining is bad:
Excessive instream sand-and-gravel mining causes the degradation of rivers. Instream mining lowers the stream bottom, which may lead to bank erosion. ...Sand mining also affects the adjoining groundwater system and the uses that local people make of the river.
What is in the sand:
The most common component of sand is silicon dioxide in the form of quartz. The Earth's landmasses are made up of rocks and minerals, including quartz, feldspar and mica. Weathering processes — such as wind, rain and freezing/thawing cycles — break down these rocks and minerals into smaller grains.
How the sand is formed:
Sand is typically made mostly of varying amounts of material weathered from inland rocks (or seacliff material) and transported to the beach on the wind or in rivers, and/or shells and other hard parts precipitated out of the ocean water by marine organisms. Sand therefore records processes at a variety of timescales. Sand is made from tiny grains of rocks and minerals. It can also be tiny particles of the shells of sea creatures. Some sand comes from the calcium (a mineral) in seaweed. Sand can be different colors.
IMPACTS OF SAND MINING:
For thousands of years, sand and gravel have been used in the construction of roads and buildings. Today, demand for sand and gravel continues to increase. Mining operators, in conjunction with cognizant resource agencies, must work to ensure that sand mining is conducted in a responsible manner.
Excessive instream sand-and-gravel mining causes the degradation of rivers. Instream mining lowers the stream bottom, which may lead to bank erosion. Depletion of sand in the streambed and along coastal areas causes the deepening of rivers and estuaries, and the enlargement of river mouths and coastal inlets. It may also lead to saline-water intrusion from the nearby sea. The effect of mining is compounded by the effect of sea level rise. Any volume of sand exported from streambeds and coastal areas is a loss to the system.
Excessive instream sand mining is a threat to bridges, river banks and nearby structures. Sand mining also affects the adjoining groundwater system and the uses that local people make of the river.
Instream sand mining results in the destruction of aquatic and riparian habitat through large changes in the channel morphology. Impacts include bed degradation, bed coarsening, lowered water tables near the streambed, and channel instability. These physical impacts cause degradation of riparian and aquatic biota and may lead to the undermining of bridges and other structures. Continued extraction may also cause the entire streambed to degrade to the depth of excavation.
Sand mining generates extra vehicle traffic, which negatively impairs the environment. Where access roads cross riparian areas, the local environment may be impacted.
The following are the easily visible issues that sand mining causes.
Riparian Habitat, Flora and Fauna
Stability of Structures
Stability of Structures